P050 Oral inflammatory changes associated with inflammatory bowel disease in spondyloarthritis associated with early endoscopic findings




BACKGROUND: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a heterogeneous group of chronic autoinflammatory disorders that can present extra-articular gastrointestinal manifestations. Among them is mainly inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although IBD mainly affects the intestinal tract, it can include early manifestations evident in the oral cavity. No comparative data on these oral manifestations in patients with SpA were found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To identify oral clinical manifestations due to changes in the oral mucosa associated with IBD in patients with SpA without a diagnosis of IBD and associate them with endoscopic and histological findings. METHODS: 80 patients with SpA and 52 healthy controls were evaluated. They were assessed intra- and extra-orally, following the modified World Health Organization guideline. In addition, by clinical parameters of rheumatological, gastrointestinal and laboratory activity. Ileocolonoscopy was performed with digital chromoendoscopy with magnification and histological analysis. Comparative analyzes were performed by Chi square tests, Fisher's exact tests, confirmed by univariate regression and discriminant analysis of multiple correspondences. Institutional ethics committee approval cod-2017-023. RESULTS: The patients with SpA had 56% male gender, mean age of 42.8 years (SD ± 10.4) and a BMI in the range of 23.9 - 28.4. The healthy controls, 54% of the male gender with an average age of 41 years (SD ± 13.6) and a body mass index-BMI in the range of 22.9 - 27.6. The patients reported smoking only in 6.2%, however as a smoking history in 31% and passive smokers (15%), the majority employed (41%), married (56%) and professionals (49%). Of the healthy controls, they smoked (15%), with a history of smoking (31%), passive smokers (21%), the majority employed (77%), with their own home (67%), and professionals (54%). The patients with SpA reported a greater presence of some signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal origin 69%, while in the controls it was 7.7% (p = 0.001). Forty one of them were referred to colonoscopy with magnification being in 17.1 % changes in the mucosa of the rectum and in the same frequency changes in the mucosa of the sigmoid colon. Regarding the ileum, changes in the mucosa were evidenced in 41.5% of the cases. The presence of oral lesions was evident and predominated in them (63%) compared to controls p = 0.050. The main oral lesions associated with IBD were gingivitis (55%) (p = 0.001), followed by aphthous stomatitis (3.8%), angular cheilitis (2.6%) and perioral erythema with scaling (1.3%). 100% of the patients who presented alteration of the colonic mucosa presented oral lesions associated with IBD (p = 0039), which was also significantly associated with the presence of gingivitis/aphthous stomatitis (p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: Patients with SpA without a diagnosis of IBD have more oral signs and symptoms compared to healthy controls. Gingivitis is important given its association with early endoscopic and histological findings. Manifestations in the oral cavity can precede intestinal manifestations, therefore the clinical assessment by the oral pathologist in conjunction with gastroenterology and rheumatology allows a timely referral to gastroenterology and an endoscopic and histological evaluation, impacting the quality of life of patients.

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