Anti-carbamylated protein and peptide antibodies as potential inflammatory joint biomarkers in the relatives of rheumatoid arthritis patients

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International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 1756-185X, Vol. 23, Nro. 12, 2020 p. 1698-1706

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Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

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Abstract

Objective: Antibodies against carbamylated proteins/peptide (CarP) have been associated with severity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, their role in risk groups, specific targets and relation with periodontal disease (PD) is uncertain yet. The aim of this study was evaluated the association between the levels of anti- CarP with clinical manifestation, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, periodontal activity markers, PD diagnosis, PD severity, and presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P gingivalis) in relatives of patients with RA. Methods: One hundred and twenty-four individuals with a family history of RA in first-degree relatives (FDR) and 124 healthy individuals gender- and age-matched, RA activity was assessed. Antibodies against carbamylated protein anti-FCS-Carp and 2 carbamylated peptides of fibrinogen were selected (anti-Ca-Fib2, anti-Ca-Fib3). Results: Anti-FCS-Carp-positive, anti-Ca-Fib2 and anti-Ca-Fib3 were more frequent in FDR than controls (25.0% vs 14.5%, 34.7% vs 15.3% and 33.1% vs 11.3%, respectively). Anti-FCS-CarP were associated with the HLA-DRB1-SE* 1402 allele (P = .035) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels (P = .016), the anti-Ca-Fib2 antibodies were associated with the HLA-DRB1-SE* 1501 allele (P = .03), with non-SE* 0901 allele (P = .01), the anti-Ca-Fib3 was associated with positive rheumatoid factor (P = .0012). The FDR condition was associated with the presence of anti-Ca-Fib3 (odds ratio [OR] =4.7; 95% CI = 1.8-11.7; P = .001) and painful joints (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.01-4.68; P = .045); we also detected an important trend toward the presence of P gingivalis (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 0.9-3.7; P = .062). Conclusion: The presence of anti-FCS-Carp, anti-Ca-Fib3 and anti-Ca-Fib2 antibodies may have a role for these antibodies as early biomarkers in the development of RA, probably including additional mechanisms related with other non-SE alleles; the anti-peptide antibodies proposed in the present study may represent a simpler way to identify antibodies directed to a specific target.

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Antibodies, Carbamylation, Rheumatoid arthritis

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