Consideraciones nutricionales en el paciente con falla cardíaca crónica
Hernández, Mario A.
Patiño, Aldo F.
Revista Colombiana de Cardiología, 0120-5633, Vol. 19, Nro. 6, 2012, p. 312-319
Sociedad Colombiana de Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiovascular
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Congestive heart failure is a syndrome characterized by reduced cardiac output, increased ventricu- lar fi lling pressures and neuroendocrine activation, which leads to a process of cardiac cell fi brosis and apoptosis. It affects nearly 23 million people worldwide and once diagnosed has a poor prognosis. From a physiopathological point of view, the relationship between pro-infl ammatory cytokines, neurohormonal activation and gastrointestinal disturbances leads to a condition called cardiac cachexia, characterized by accelerated weight loss, fatigue, decreased muscle strength, anorexia and decreased quality of life. This process can further deteriorate life prognosis of these patients. In the past two decades many advances regarding the pharmacological and electrical treatment of heart failure have been made, but studies in the non-pharmacological fi eld are few, especially in the nutritional aspect, and likewise, the recommenda- tions of the international guidelines on the subject are scarce. In small studies, a nutritional approach has shown to positively impact the quality of life and exercise tolerance, although larger studies are needed to determine the feasibility of this approach in patients with heart failure.
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