Induction of “cytokine storm” in patients infected with sars-cov-2 and development of COVID-19. Does the gastrointestinal tract any relation in severity?
Revista colombiana de gastroenterologia, 0120-9957, Vol. 35, Nro. 35, Sup. 1, 2020, p. 21-29
Asociacion Colombiana de Gastroenterologia
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Coronaviruses are an extensive family of viruses, some of them can produce different kind of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 zoonotic coronavirus and started in China in December 2019. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it a global pandemic. This disease has a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, predominantly presenting with cough and fever, resulting in a proportion of patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been argued that severe lung involvement by the virus may also be caused by hyperinflammation and a condition similar to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocyto-sis (HLH), which is a clinical syndrome caused by an inadequate response of the immune system to a trigger, whether infectious, neoplastic, metabolic, or rheumatologic, leading to a disproportionate inflammatory reac-tion. This activated immune response producing an exaggerated release or storm of cytokines responsible for this disease. There are recently publications suggesting that the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms is associated with COVID 19 disease with higher indicators of severity, which motivates the gastroenterologist to explore how the digestive system could impact this hyperinflammation.
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