Miocarditis en pediatría
Camacho, John H.
Contreras, Juan P.
Díaz, Paula V.
Revista colombiana de cardiología, 0120-5633, Vol. 24, Nro. 5, 2017, p. 496-504
Sociedad Colombiana De Cardiología
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Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle unrelated to valvular abnormalities and ischaemic disease. The prevalence and incidence are unknown since it is presented sub-acutely or with non-specific initial symptoms. Its pathophysiology consists of three phases: acute <3 days---myocardial damage mediated by direct action a virus), sub-acute (4-14 days---the myocardial damage is due to a dysregulation of an autoimmune host response), and chronic (>15 days - insufficient viral clearance and perpetuation of the inflammatory process, which leads to cardiac remodelling and heart failure). Parvovirus B19 and human herpesvirus 6 have been described as the most common aetiological agents. The clinical signs include, chest pain, arrhythmias, and in infants (lethargy, tachypnoea, mild shortness of breath, etc.) It can start with a viral prodrome, ventricular dysfunction, or sudden death. There are four possibilities of clinical presentation: asymptomatic, acute myocarditis, fulminant or dilated chronic cardiomyopathy. The electrocardiogram detects between 93%-100% of abnormalities. Cardiovascular nuclear magnetic resonance with gadolinium is the most used, mainly in endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment is based on the haemodynamic monitoring of the patient, the evaluation of the need for diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, non-selective beta-blockers, inotropic support, anti-arrhythmic drugs or, in severe cases, and the need for mechanical cardiovascular support. The use of immunoglobulin has been evaluated, and there is controversy over the use of immunosuppressives and antivirals. The prognosis is variable and depends on factors inherent to the environment and the host. An updated review of the literature is presented.
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